5G: balancing the needs of humans and machines
The 5G, central theme of Mobile World Congress opens in Barcelona on Monday, has to meet the growing needs of Internet speed, speed, but above all to organize the coexistence of billion people glued to their smartphone and billions of objects, fridges, cars, houses.
“The 4G was an evolution of 3G, with more speed, speed, but roughly around with the same ecosystem, while the 5G aims to meet a variety of uses that come out of this ecosystem,” as the e-health, industry, and transportation, for example, says Viktor Arvidsson, Head of strategy at Ericsson France.
For consumers, the 5G has to bring forward any of the more: more speed and flow that will support the development of online video or virtual reality and even tomorrow, the arrival of holograms.
“To manage holograms, we need a rate exceeding 10 gigabits per second (Gb / s), that 4G networks can not offer. But tomorrow, the 5G will push up rates and reach 20 Gb / s. And people love this kind of innovative service, “says Minsoo Na, Director Research and Development at SK Telecom, the South Korean operator.
But that future human needs, 5G will aim to enable the expected explosion of the Internet of Things, in areas as diverse as sensors, connected transportation or industrial machinery, for which 4G is inappropriate.
“The network must adapt both to very high speeds and enormous capacities and at the same time, billions of objects communicating very little and not necessarily frequently. It must also meet critical needs that require extremely short response times, “explains Frédéric Pujol, a specialist in radio technologies and spectrum to Idate.
5G and braking distance
Through the use of a wider spectrum of waves, antennas increasingly numerous and adapted to the different radio waves and also thanks to the convergence of fixed and mobile networks, it is possible to reduce transmission speeds, a necessity absolute for the internet of Things.
“It will take a network with a latency of a few milliseconds, for vehicles (cars without driver) for example. With 4G, an autonomous car to 100 km / h will trigger three meters to his braking while with 5G, it will be only a few centimeters. But for that you need a blanket to 99.99% at any point of the globe, “said Merouane Debbah, mathematical and algorithmic director for Huawei in Paris.
Another challenge is that of autonomy.
“With 4G, if one brings a throughput of 10 Gigabits per second (Gb / s), a smartphone is emptied very quickly. The 5G is to solve this type of problem. It should also enable the Internet immersive “, provided by the” video 8K “(ultra high definition) and virtual reality helmets, explains Mr. Debbah.
These different uses, devised in 2014, whet appetites around the world. They are central to the European program METIS 2020 includes thirty European and global players to set the expected goals of the 5G.
Test consumer in Asia since 2018
The second step is now done via the consortium Private-public partnership 5G (5GPPP), driven by the European Commission, with the will to develop by 2018 the technical solutions to problems related to these uses.
In order to quickly reach a normalization of 5G, the European Union could spend up to 700 million euros in 5GPPP, alongside the private sector which in turn will invest three billion euros.
In order to allow “European leadership, we must work with the best from around the world, including outside Europe, such as Huawei, Intel, Qualcomm and others,” confirmed Thibaut Kleiner, head of network technologies the European Commission.
The race between the different regions of the world is engaged.
Asia has to play a major role, with a huge test in South Korea on the occasion of the Pyeongchang Olympic Winter Games in 2018 and in Japan during those summer in Tokyo in 2020.
American actors does not intend to let win. Verizon and AT & T operators have announced in September and early February, the launch of the first field tests in the course of 2016.